Creation Science Rebuttals

Associate Professor Teaching and Research I am a field-based geologist with research interests in large-scale tectonic problems that are addressed through collaborative research and focused, process-related studies. In addition to structural geology and petrology, one of my main tools is radiometric dating of rocks and minerals to quantify absolute timing of events and rates of processes. My students and I integrate observations over a large range of scales from microstructures to regional geological and geophysical data sets, and employ a suite of methodologies to evaluate P-T-t-D histories and the 4D evolution of rocks and regions. I teach courses in geochronology, petrology, microstructural analysis and tectonics. In the classroom and in practice, my students and I integrate analytical data with observations made at microscopic to continental scales to try and understand how rocks and regions evolve in space and time and the tectonic processes that shape them. Publications Recent Publication Heumann, M. Selected Publications Webber, J. Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geosystems, doi: A case study of the application of the TitaniQ thermobarometer to progressive fabric development in metapelites, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v.

Methods of Geological Dating: Numerical and Relative Dating

If in doubt, do a print preview prior to printing! This graph shows the response to increasing stress as applied to two different rock types: The force applied to a plane divided by the area of the plane. The stress generated by forces directed toward one another on opposite sides of a real or imaginary plane. The stress generated by forces directed away from one another on opposite sides of a real or imaginary plane.

Engineering geology is the application of the geologic principles to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of engineering works are properly addressed.

Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.

Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age. When a date is quoted, the reader should be aware that if it is an uncalibrated date a term used for dates given in radiocarbon years it may differ substantially from the best estimate of the actual calendar date, both because it uses the wrong value for the half-life of 14 C, and because no correction calibration has been applied for the historical variation of 14 C in the atmosphere over time.

Geologic Formations

I trust that this gives you a feel for the possibilities or otherwise of the proposal. I believe I earlier saw reference to the plasma formation of petroleum like products If you could point me to where this might have been, or even if you have any unpublished thoughts on this, I would appreciate any help you might be able to provide. Thank you for the question. In response it can be said that plasma physics does have some suggestions on this matter.

Radiometric dating calculates an age in years for geologic materials by measuring the presence of a short-life radioactive element, e.g., carbon, or a long-life radioactive element plus its decay product, e.g., potassium/argon

I pride myself in custom-designing GeoAdventures for folks who love geology, but we do so much more. By partnering with top-notch expert local guides, each trip combines not only fabulous geology and the beauty of the natural world, but offers experiences in each regions historic, cultural, and gastronomic delights. And we always have a lot of fun! These trips are made for the geology enthusiast. I pick an existing trip or develop a new one and propose a time frame for offering that trip such as “September “.

People contact me to be placed on the Interested Parties list for that trip. People on the list have the first opportunity to sign up for the trip. When enough people are interested, I finalize the trip dates and costs and announce the trip to the interested parties list and collect deposits.

How Do Scientists Determine the Age of Dinosaur Bones?

He starts out with an explanation of what carbon dating is, which proves to be adequate for this discussion. The only notable exception is that he says carbon dating is only good for objects less than 40, years old. This date has been changed to about 62, years.

This quiz will test your understanding of determining relative ages of rock layers, determining absolute ages of rock layers as well as using fossils for dating.

Farm-Out Arrangement A contractual agreement in which a mineral rights owner or lessee assigns a working interest to another party who will become responsible for specific exploration, development or production activities. Fault A fracture or fracture zone in rock along which movement has occurred. When movement occurs the vibrations that are produced are known as an earthquake. Fault-Block Mountain A linear mountain that is bounded on both sides by normal faults.

Fault Creep A very slow movement that occurs on faults in response to continuous tectonic deformation. The deformation might not be accompanied by earthquake activity. Faults that creep usually have fewer earthquakes than faults that move suddenly. The photo shows a curb and sidewalk which were becoming offset due to creep along the Hayward Fault in California.

The curb was repaired in Fault Gouge Crushed and smeared rock debris that is found between the two walls of a fault produced by crushing action of fault movement. The photo shows serpentinite gouge in the Bartlett Springs Fault. Fault Trace The intersection of a fault with Earth’s surface, often as seen in the field, on an aerial photo or on a satellite image. A line on a geologic map that represents the intersection of a fault with the Earth’s surface.

The image is an oblique aerial photo of the Banning Fault in the northern portion of the Coachella Valley of California.

Geological Terms Beginning With “F”

Yellowstone Park Foundation Yellowstone National Park covers 2, , acres, which is roughly the size of the state of Connecticut. The park is comprised primarily of high, forested, volcanic plateaus that have been eroded over – the millennia by glaciation and stream flow and that are flanked on the north, east, and south by mountains. The elevation of the park averages 8, feet, ranging from 5, feet in the north, where the Gardner River drains from the park, to 11, feet in the east, at the summit of Eagle Peak in the Absaroka Range.

Often applied to the trace mineral zircon in igneous rocks, this method is one of the two most commonly used (along with argon–argon dating) for geologic dating. Monazite geochronology is another example of U–Pb dating, employed for dating metamorphism in particular. Uranium–lead dating is applied to samples older than about 1 million years.

Sand Sand isn’t a boring material if you know what you are looking at! Highly rounded sand grains from the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. Wind-blown sand sustains repeated tiny impacts as it bounces along Earth’s surface. These impacts gradually abrade sharp protrusions from the grains and give their surface a “frosted” luster. The width of this view is approximately 10 millimeters. The white grains are coral fragments, and the gray-black grains are pieces of basalt.

If you think the grains have a “gemmy” appearance, olivine is the mineral name of a gemstone known as “peridot.

geological dating

This is what archaeologists use to determine the age of human-made artifacts. But carbon dating won’t work on dinosaur bones. The half-life of carbon is only 5, years, so carbon dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50, years old. Dinosaur bones, on the other hand, are millions of years old — some fossils are billions of years old.

To determine the ages of these specimens, scientists need an isotope with a very long half-life. Some of the isotopes used for this purpose are uranium , uranium and potassium , each of which has a half-life of more than a million years.

dating in geology To establish the age of a rock or a fossil, researchers use some type of relative dating clock to determine the date it was radiometric dating methods, based on the natural radioactive decay of certain elements such as potassium and .

A glassy igneous rock with a composition similar to granite. The glassy texture is a result of cooling so fast that mineral lattices were not developed. Ocean Jasper A gem material named because it is found below the high tide line of a Madagascar ocean beach. It is patterned with beautiful eyes and bands in a wide variety of colors. It also can grade from agate to jasper in a single stone.

Offshore The geographic area that is seaward of a coastline.

Radioactive Dating Game

Z Click on an underlined word for more information on that subject. If the dinosaur or paleontology term you are looking for is not in the dictionary, please e-mail us. They help in dating other fossils found in the same sedimentary layer. For example, if you find a fossil from an unknown era near a fossil from a known time, you can assume that the two species were from about the same time.

Examples of index fossils include:

Relative and absolute dating of geologic events Introduction The study of Earth history involves determining the sequence of geologic events over immense spans of time. In most cases the correct order of events can be determined without knowing their actual ages: that is, we.

They are largely the result of two basic geologic processes: Deposition A quick look at the Badlands will reveal that they were deposited in layers. The layers are composed of tiny grains of sediments such as sand, silt, and clay that have been cemented together into sedimentary rocks. The sedimentary rock layers of Badlands National Park were deposited during the late Cretaceous Period 67 to 75 million years ago throughout the Late Eocene 34 to 37 million years ago and Oligocene Epochs 26 to 34 million years ago.

Different environments—sea, tropical land, and open woodland with meandering rivers—caused different sediments to accumulate here at different times. The layers similar in character are grouped into units called formations. The oldest formations are at the bottom and the youngest are at the top, illustrating the principle of superposition. A simplified stratigraphic column of the major rock formations found in Badlands National Park.

The lighter-colored Sharps Formation was deposited from 28 to 30 million years ago by wind and water as the climate continued to dry and cool. Volcanic eruptions to the west continued to supply ash during this time. Today, the Brule and Sharps form the more rugged peaks and canyons of the Badlands. A thick layer of volcanic ash known as the Rockyford Ash was deposited 30 million years ago, forming the bottom layer of the Sharps Formation.

Varve Dating and Calibration

He deduced that the layered rock were sediments laid down in marine and continental environments by procxesses and at rates currently observed. This became to be known as the principle of uniformitarianism and led to the establishment of relative ages of the various rock layers Measurement of rates of sedimentation then led directly to the discovery of the great antiquity of the Earth. Relative Age is determining the sequence of geologic events that have occurred in a given area and can be established on the basis of several intuitive principles: Sediments deposited in water were originally flat lying.

rubidium-strontium dating – geological dating based on the proportions of radioactive rubidium into its decay product strontium; radioactive rubidium has a half-life of 47,,, years Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster’s.

Read more about it here. A Guide to Geologic Sites in the Hoosier State MI A story of oceans, uplift, and ice, Indiana’s geological history is reflected in the vistas and landscapes you will see as you travel through the state. From the Indiana Dunes of Lake Michigan, one of the world’s largest displays of lakeshore dunes, to the historic little town of New Harmony, where American geology had its beginnings, this book is your guide to 50 of the most significant and interesting sites in Indiana.

You will find kettle lakes formed by melting glaciers, gorgeous waterfalls carved into the rock, and a world-renowned karst landscape peppered with sinkholes and caves. Explore the Falls of the Ohio, the location of the largest exposed Devonian fossil beds in the world, or wander through the campus of Indiana University and tour the buildings and carvings of Salem Limestone, a building stone treasured by architects. Researched and written by Polly Sturgeon, the Outreach Coordinator of the Indiana Geological and Water Survey, with help from her colleagues, this book is a cross section of the Hoosier state and a treasure of geological and historical surprises.

Welcome to DEC

Paleomagnetic dating[ edit ] A sequence of paleomagnetic poles usually called virtual geomagnetic poles , which are already well defined in age, constitutes an apparent polar wander path APWP. Such path is constructed for a large continental block. APWPs for different continents can be used as a reference for newly obtained poles for the rocks with unknown age.

Dating with Radioactivity A half-life is the amount of time necessary for one-half of the nuclei in a sample (parent) to decay to a stable isotope (daughter). Half-Life

Shop Now Scientists use a technique called radiometric dating to estimate the ages of rocks, fossils, and the earth. Many people have been led to believe that radiometric dating methods have proved the earth to be billions of years old. With our focus on one particular form of radiometric dating—carbon dating—we will see that carbon dating strongly supports a young earth. Note that, contrary to a popular misconception, carbon dating is not used to date rocks at millions of years old.

Basics Before we get into the details of how radiometric dating methods are used, we need to review some preliminary concepts from chemistry. Recall that atoms are the basic building blocks of matter.

Radiometric or Absolute Rock Dating